Oh most definitely. If the audience doesn’t understand what your saying, why your saying it and who your speaking to; it will affect their comprehension of what your trying to say to the audience.
For instance, in Ireland there are words the Irish understand, the craic which to Americans mean either a drug, or the space between your butt cheeks. In Ireland you say …it’s the craic, or a craic if it’s a great humorous issue, thing, joke or time. The Irish say bum, word that most Americans aren’t familiar with. To American’s it’s butt.
Then the same can be said for Americans’ understanding certain terms that the Irish or any other foreign culture say. Americans may not have familiarity with a foreigner’s vocabulary. Even though we could all speak the same language; there are differences.
So the language of an audience is first at the forefront. Then what is happening politically in the country. An audience must have an understanding of current events of the society they live in if the play is set there. Or, if in a foreign country, the knowledge of a foreign countries issues to be able to comprehend it. Since a lot of plays focus on social issues and culture.
Some cultures have different dress codes as well. To some cultures the American style of dress is too casual. Or we show too much skin. Look to the Middle East for instance. To them our way of dress is vulgar and we definitely don’t understand their reasons for remaining covered.